ENT also called otolaryngology or head and neck surgery is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons.

ENT in Iran

we have special expertise in managing diseases of the ears, nose and nasal passage sinuses, larynx (voice box), oral cavity and upper pharynx (mouth and throat), as well as structures of the neck and face.
ENT surgeons and Our highly-trained physicians, nurses, audiologists, and administrative staff work closely together, taking a holistic view of the patient and collaborating on treatment plans and makes this convenient and efficient for both the physicians and patients, while allowing us to offer a higher level of personal service and attention to our patients.

The scope of ENT includes:

Acoustic Neuroma Tumor Surgery

Acoustic neuroma is benign tumor which grows in the brain. This tumor can cause unsteadiness and hearing loss. There are various ways to treat this condition, in some cases surgery is necessary. The surgical procedure involves the removal of the tumor through the inner ear or a window in the skull during general anesthesia. The aim of this treatment is to remove the tumor while preserving facial nerves and retaining hearing if possible.

Skull base tumor surgery (resection of tumor such as glomus)

Treatment for skull base tumors and conditions may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and/or observation. In the endoscopic tumor resection surgery, a tiny camera called endoscope is used to remove the tumor during a minimally invasive procedure.  The treatment for a skull base tumor or condition depends on many factors, including:

The location of the tumor or condition

For tumors, the extent of the tumor and whether it is benign or malignant

The patient’s general health and preferences regarding potential treatment options

Reconstruction hearing(Ossicular Chain Reconstruction)

Reconstruction hearing a surgical procedure used to treat ossicular chain dysfunction. The middle ear contains bones called ossicles which conduct sound to the inner ear. Damage or discontinuity these bones due to various causes such as trauma or chronic infections leads to hearing loss. Reconstruction hearing can restore the hearing which is lost due to this condition. This outpatient surgery is performed during general anesthesia, through the ear canal.

Cochlear Implants

A cochlear implant is a surgically implanted medical electronic device which is a solution to simulate the auditory nerve therefore is different than hearing aids which are amplifying sound and can be used in persons with deafness or severely hard of hearing. Cochlear implant bypasses normal hearing process and damaged middle ear.

Implantable hearing aids

There are various types of implantable hearing aids but their main function is to strengthen sound vibrations entering the inner ear. Bone Anchored Hearing Aids (BAHA) and middle ear implants (MEI) are two of the most common types of implantable hearing aids. MEI devices use the middle ear, while BAHA implants use the bone to conduct sound to the inner ear.

Tympanomastoidectomy

It is a surgery to remove various infections that may damage ear and near ear parts. Abnormal tissue called the mastoid. The doctor removes mastoid and also may repair tiny bones in the middle ear. tympanomastoidectomy, consists of two surgery often performed at the same: Tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy. The goal of the operation is treating the infection and removing the extent of the disease. After surgery you will have some stitches behind your ear that will need to be kept on your ear until you come back for your two-week appointment.

Tympanoplasty

Tympanoplasty which is also called eardrum repair, is a surgical procedure used to repair a perforated tympanic eardrum or middle ear bones. Eardrum perforation may occur due trauma or chronic infection. The aim of this surgery to improve hearing and close the perforation. Tympanoplasty is an effective outpatient surgery performed to eliminate the middle ear disease and restore its function.

Stapedectomy

Stapedectomy is a surgical procedure used to treat hearing loss due stuck or frozen stapes bone. This condition usually occurs due to a disease called otosclerosis, but may have other causes such as severe middle ear infection. This treatment allows sound to reach into the inner ear to restore the hearing. Stapedectomy is usually an out-patient surgery performed during general or local anesthesia.

Bone Anchored Hearing Aids (BAHA)

The bone anchored hearing aid is a device which is implanted during a surgical procedure to restore the hearing. This device conducts sound through the bone directly to the cochlea, so they bypass the outer and middle ear, while conventional hearing aids pass sound via the middle ear. BAHA is useful for patients with mixed and conductive hearing loss.

Middle Ear Implants

Middle ear implants (MEI) are small devices inserted in the middle ear and attached to ossicles or the oval window. The main difference between MEI and other conventional hearing aids is that MEI don’t need a speaker. This device stimulates the inner ear structures by converting sound into mechanical vibrations. MEI devices are suitable for those who are not satisfied with conventional hearing aids or can’t use them for medical reasons.

Intratympanic Therapy / Inner Ear Perfusion

Meniere’s disease is a condition of the inner ear that may cause causes attacks of vertigo, a hearing loss or a feeling pressure in the ear. There are two main types of Intratympanic Therapy for treating Meniere’s disease which are Intratympanic Steroid Perfusion and Intratympanic Gentamicin Perfusion. The final objective of this treatment is to eliminate the vertigo episodes or reduce its frequency.

Resection of Malignant Ear Tumor

Ear tumor resection is a surgical procedure involving the removal of the tumor. Malignant (cancerous) ear tumors are usually caused by skin cancer that grows on the outer ear. Malignant ear tumors require surgery, which may be followed by radiotherapy. There are various surgical methods to remove the tumor; factors such as the location and stage of the ear cancer and the extent of involvement of ear bones determine the appropriate procedure.

Head and Neck Surgery:

Parotidectomy

A parotidectomy is the removal parts or all of the parotid gland. This surgery typically performed because of tumors. Tumors can be non-cancerous or cancerous. Most of parotid gland tumors are non-cancerous, however 20% are not. The reason to remove this gland is an unusual mass contained within that it won’t make much trouble to patient. The only symptom would be feeling a lump in area. This operation performed under general anaesthetic and can take up to 3 hours depends on factors like: location of mass or patient conditions.

Submandibular gland tumors resection

The submandibular glands are major salivary glands located just below the jaw, or the mandible. Most of the submandibular gland tumors are benign, which means they don’t spread to the other parts of the body. The tumor resection surgery involves the removal of the tumor through an incision made in the upper neck, along the jaw. General anesthesia is used during this procedure.

laryngectomy (total and partial)

The larynx, also called the voice box, has many functions such as preventing food and liquids to fall into lungs and also responsible for creating voice. But the main function is a canal for air to pass to lungs.  The removal of larynx called Laryngectomy and it can be done by removing the whole or part of larynx. This operation can perform on people with throat related cancers or major swallowing issues. In all cases patient will go under general anaesthetic and after larynx is removed there are number of options for patient to speak.

Laryngeal Surgery

The larynx or the voice box, functions to help you breathe, keep food out of the windpipe and create voices. Laryngeal surgery is often performed to treat laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. There are various laryngeal surgery types; the main methods include laser surgery, larynx removal and lymph nodes removal.  The suitable procedure depends on factors such as the cancer stage and location.

Thyroidectomy

Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure which involves removing part or all of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland located at the front of the neck which produces hormones to regulate the metabolism of the body. Thyroidectomy has various types and it’s used to treat diseases of the thyroid such as thyroid cancer, overactive thyroid, multi-nodular goiter and thyroid enlargement.

Parathyroidectomy

Parathyroidectomy is a surgical procedure which involves removing one or more of the parathyroid glands to treat hyperparathyroidism, or removing parathyroid tumors to treat parathyroid cancer.  There are four parathyroid glands located on both sides of the windpipe. These glands release parathyroid hormones to regulate calcium levels within the body. Hyperparathyroidism occurs when the parathyroid glands release too much hormones. Parathyroid cancer occurs when malignant cells grow in the parathyroid glands.

Resection Mandibular and Maxillary Tumors

Mandibular and maxillary Tumor resection is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of the tumor and an area around it. Maxilla is the upper jaw and the lower jaw is known as mandible. Tumors can appear either on the maxilla or the mandible. In cases of severe jaw cancer that the tumor has affected the jaw bone, all or part of the mandible or maxilla has to be removed as well, so the resection surgery may be followed by surgical reconstruction.

Resection Parapharyngeal Tumors

Parapharyngeal tumor resection is a surgical procedure involving the removal of the tumor. The Parapharyngeal space is a deep compartment of the head and neck consisting of areolar tissue and containing trigeminal nerves and deep vessels. Most of the Parapharyngeal tumors are benign. The suitable surgical procedure depends on the tumor size and cancer stage. The aim of this treatment is to safely remove the tumor while preserving the facial nerve.

resection congenital tumors of head and neck

Adenotonsilectomy

Adenotonsillectomy is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of the adenoids and tonsils. The adenoids are at the back of the nose and the tonsils are located at the back of the throat. Adenotonsillectomy is usually used for treating children with conditions such as sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and obstructive sleep apnoea. This surgery may also become necessary to reduce infections of the middle ear.

Resection of Oropharyngeal Tumors such as Glossectomy

Oropharyngeal Tumor resection is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of the tumor and an area around it, to destroy any cancer cells left behind. Various factors such as the location and stage of the cancer determine the appropriate surgery method. For example, glossectomy is used to treat tongue cancer. In severe cases the entire tongue may be removed (total glossectomy), otherwise a part of the tongue is removed (partial glossectomy). Reconstructive surgery is usually performed after tumor resection to restore the function and appearance of the affected area.

Rhinology and Sinus Surgery

Rhinology and sinus surgery subspecialty uses medical and surgical procedures to treat and manage nasal and sinus diseases. There is a wide range of disorders treated by this subspecialty, including allergies, sinusitis, nasal obstruction, nose tumors, anterior skull base tumors, sinus tumors, tear duct obstruction, nasal polyps, nose bleed, etc.

Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)

Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery involves procedures to diagnose and treat nasal and sinus diseases using CT scans and endoscopes. This treatment is a minimally invasive method and its objective is to restore the normal function and ventilation of the sinuses. FESS is most commonly used to treat recurrent acute or chronic infective sinusitis. Some of the common indications for this technique include nasal polyposis, excision of certain tumors, recurrent sinusitis and sinus mucoceles.

Resection of Pituitary Tumors with Endoscopy

Endoscopic pituitary surgery (or transsphenoidal surgery) is used to remove pituitary tumors. The pituitary is a gland above the inside of the nose. It functions to regulate most of the hormones in the body. Pituitary tumors may cause hormone disorders and vision loss. Endoscopic pituitary surgery is a minimally invasive procedure, using an endoscope for removing the tumor to restore hormone balance and reverse vision disorders.

Rhinoplasty and Nose Reconstruction

Rhinoplasty is a surgical procedure used to improve the proportions or to correct structural problems of the nose. This surgery may be used to reshape or resize the nose, change its angle in relation to the lips and to correct various concerns such as bumps, asymmetry or other defects of the nose. It can also be performed to treat breathing conditions. Revision rhinoplasty may be performed to repair and improve the results of the previous nose surgeries.

Resection of Nose Skin Tumors with Reconstruction

Skin tumor resection is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of the tumor. The nose is the most common site of facial skin cancer. The tumor resection surgery may cause defects and wounds that need to be treated.  There are various reconstructive procedures; the appropriate method depends on the type of the skin cancer.  Reconstruction techniques help to increase the healing speed after the nose skin tumor resection and to restore the appearance and function of the nose.

septoplasty

In order to improve hearing and treat otosclerosis there is a kind of outpatient surgery called: Stapedectomy. In this surgery the doctor will remove and replace stapes with an artificial part. This operation can restore normal hearing in 90% of cases.

Sleep Disorder Treatment (Surgical or Medical Treatment)

There are various type of sleep disorders such as insomnia, snoring, Sleep apnea and sleep deprivation that affect the sleep quality and regularity, resulting in daytime fatigue, lack of concentration or anxiety. Depending on the disorder type and underlying cause, different surgical or medical treatments can be used. For example, palate surgery may be performed in some cases of sleep apnea.

Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR)

Endoscopic DCR is a surgical procedure used to treat tearing caused by nasolacrimal duct obstruction.  This condition may have various causes such as chronic stenosis of the nasolacrimal duct, inflammatory medical conditions or trauma. Endoscopic DCR is a minimally invasive procedure which uses a tiny camera called endoscope to unblock tear ducts and correct other  related defects.

Reconstruction Hearing (Ossicular Chain Reconstruction)

Reconstruction hearing a surgical procedure used to treat ossicular chain dysfunction. The middle ear contains bones called ossicles which conduct sound to the inner ear. Damage or discontinuity these bones due to various causes such as trauma or chronic infections leads to hearing loss. Reconstruction hearing can restore the hearing which is lost due to this condition. This outpatient surgery is performed during general anesthesia, through the ear canal.

Resection of Mandibular and Maxillary Tumors

Mandibular and maxillary Tumor resection is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of the tumor and an area around it. Maxilla is the upper jaw and the lower jaw is known as mandible. Tumors can appear either on the maxilla or the mandible. In cases of severe jaw cancer that the tumor has affected the jaw bone, all or part of the mandible or maxilla has to be removed as well, so the resection surgery may be followed by surgical reconstruction.

Resection of Parapharyngeal Tumors

Parapharyngeal tumor resection is a surgical procedure involving the removal of the tumor. The Parapharyngeal space is a deep compartment of the head and neck consisting of areolar tissue and containing trigeminal nerves and deep vessels. Most of the Parapharyngeal tumors are benign. The suitable surgical procedure depends on the tumor size and cancer stage. The aim of this treatment is to safely remove the tumor while preserving the facial nerve.

Intratympanic Therapy/Inner Ear Perfusion

Meniere’s disease is a condition of the inner ear that may cause causes attacks of vertigo, a hearing loss or a feeling pressure in the ear. There are two main types of Intratympanic Therapy for treating Meniere’s disease which are Intratympanic Steroid Perfusion and Intratympanic Gentamicin Perfusion. The final objective of this treatment is to eliminate the vertigo episodes or reduce its frequency.

Acoustic Neuroma Tumor Surgery

Acoustic neuroma is benign tumor which grows in the brain. This tumor can cause unsteadiness and hearing loss. There are various ways to treat this condition, in some cases surgery is necessary. Translabyrinthine Surgery and Middle fossa surgery are among the procedures to treat this condition. The surgical procedure involves the removal of the tumor through the inner ear or a window in the skull during general anesthesia. The aim of this treatment is to remove the tumor while preserving facial nerves and retaining hearing if possible.

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