Cardiology in Iran consists of the study, diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart. Heart surgeries are among many various corrective treatments that tend to different conditions of the heart, and damage caused by a number of diseases.

Heart surgeries (cardiac or cardiothoracic surgery) includes many different types of surgical procedures to correct various conditions and damage caused by disease, heart attack, and strokes.

Cardiology in Iran

Iranian cardiology specialists hold highest scientific levels in assessing and treatment of cardiac disorders and provide medical services of high quality in performing very advanced heart surgeries, many of them are globally renowned for the complex operations they have attempted.

Iranian hospital, have seen brilliant records in cardiology and according to just one hospitals record, out of 25 thousand pace maker surgeries and angioplasties performed in the past 10 years, not a single surgery-related death has been reported

Iranian specialists are successfully keeping pace with the rapid global advancement in cardiovascular treatments are Iran is currency among the top 10 countries in treating cardiovascular conditions, raking number one in the middle east region.

Because of the high quality cardiology medical care provided by these hospitals, every year, thousands of patients from neighboring countries and even all across Europe and the US, to seek treatment. The specialists with the help of high-end and modern facilities and hospital equipment, are capable of performing sophisticated heart surgeries with the best results.

Common Cardiovascular Surgeries and treatments:

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

ACS is a term given by doctors to various heart conditions and covers a range of disorders, including a heart attack and unstable angina that are caused by the same underlying problem. The underlying problem is a sudden reduction of blood flow to part of the heart muscle.


The Automatic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (AICD) is an electronic device used to monitor the heart rhythm and is able to correct abnormal heart rhythm. The AICD is implanted into the chest to treat life-threatening tachycardia, by delivering electrical shocks to the heart in cases of abnormal heart rhythm, to restore the normal heart function.


Coronary angiography is a procedure which involves using a contrast material for filling in the blood vessels and X-ray imaging to study the blood flow through the heart arteries and to detect any possible blockages. This method is especially effective for evaluating coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary angiography can exactly detect the severity and location of CAD.



Coronary angioplasty is procedure which involves using a balloon-tipped catheter to open blocked or narrowed heart arteries and restore normal blood flow. This is done by inserting the balloon-tipped catheter through an artery and inflating the balloon where the artery is blocked. This treatment may be used to reduce chest pain due to reduced blood flow and to prevent damage to heart muscle after a heart attack.

Atrial Septal Defect

The atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital condition which refers to a hole in the wall separating the two upper chambers of the heart. The appropriate treatment for this condition depends on various factors such as the size and location of the defect. If the defect causes severe symptoms, a surgical procedure to repair the atrial septal defect may be necessary.


Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is surgical procedure for treating coronary artery disease (CAD), which involves connecting or grafting a healthy artery to the blocked coronary artery. This method is used to bypass the blocked part of the coronary vein, for creating a new path for blood flow. Multiple coronary veins can be treated during one CABG surgery.

Cardiac Ablation Treatment

Cardiac ablation is a procedure for treating heart rhythm problems, which involves destroying the tissue in the heart causing abnormal rhythms. During cardiac ablation, small wires are inserted in the heart for measuring its electrical activity and detecting the source of the rhythm problem. Once the source is identified, it is removed to restore the normal heart rhythm. This operation may be performed using catheters, during a minimally invasive procedure.

Cardiac Catheterization Procedures

Cardiac catheterization is a procedure used for diagnosing and treating heart conditions which involves inserting a thin tube called a catheter in an artery and threading it to the heart. Cardiac catheterization is used to measure the pressure and blood flow through the heart arteries and to detect diseases of the coronary arteries, heart muscle or valves. Various heart treatments use cardiac catheterization, such as angioplasty.

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

Congestive heart failure (CHF) occurs when the heart fails to pump sufficient blood to meet the body’s need; it doesn’t mean that the heart has stopped working. Common causes of this condition include high blood pressure, diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). There are a variety of procedures to treat CHF such as medication, heart transplantation or pump implantation. The appropriate treatment depends on various factors like the stage of the condition. Sometimes a combination of treatments may be recommended to treat CHF.

Echocardiography Test

Echocardiography test is a procedure that uses ultrasound waves to take real-time images called echocardiogram of the heart. This technique is used to monitor the functioning of the heart and its valves, so it can detect heart blood clots, aorta problems, etc. Echocardiography may be recommended for various reasons, such as an irregular heartbeat that needs inspection of heart chambers or valves. There several types of echocardiography, the appropriate test depends on the required information.

Heart Pacemaker

A pacemaker is an electrical medical device, which is inserted under the skin during a minimal invasive procedure. This device sends signals to the heart to manage irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) and restore the normal heart rhythm. There are two general arrhythmias types that can be treated by pacemakers including tachycardia (when heart is beating too fast) and bradycardia (when heart is beating too slowly).

Heart Valve Replacement Surgery

Heart valve replacement is a surgical procedure which involves replacing one or more of the heart valves with a prosthetic valve, as a treatment for valve disease. Heart valves control the one-way blood flow by closing and opening during heartbeats. In cases of severe valve damage, valve replacement surgery may be recommended. This surgery is most commonly performed to replace the aortic or mitral valve.


Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) is similar to Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). It involves connecting or grafting a healthy artery to the blocked coronary artery for treating coronary artery disease (CAD). MIDCAB is a less invasive approach of CABG. This method is usually used for bypassing one or two heart arteries; while for bypassing more arteries the conventional CABG procedure is recommended.

Open Heart Surgery

Open heart surgery which is also called traditional heart surgery, refers to any type of surgery which involves cutting the chest open to treat valves, arteries or muscles of the heart. During this operation the body is connected to a bypass machine which does the work of the heart and lungs. Open heart surgery may be performed for various reasons. It is used to replace or repair damaged heart valves, repair abnormal heart tissues, heart transplantation, etc.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus PDA

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition which occurs after birth. This problem causes abnormal blood flow between major heart arteries, resulting in increased blood pressure in arteries of the lung. There are various treatments for PDA. Using medicines such as ibuprofen can be effective for newborns. In more severe cases when the catheter methods can’t treat the condition, surgical procedures may be necessary.

Aortic Surgery

The aorta is a large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to other organs throughout the body. The aortic valve controls the one-way blood flow by closing and opening during heartbeats. There are various conditions that can affect the function of aorta that may lead to life threatening situations. Aortic surgery may be necessary to treat diseases such as aortic aneurysm (enlarged aorta), aortic dissection (tears and holes in the aortic valve) or may be performed to replace the aortic valves.

Surgical Ventricular Restoration

Surgical Ventricular Restoration is used to treat congestive heart failure (CHF), which occurs when the heart fails to pump sufficient blood to meet the body’s need. CHF may occur after a heart attack due to the development of an aneurysm or scar. This surgical procedure involves removing a part of the aneurysm scar tissue, in order to restore the normal shape and size of the heart and improve its function.

Pediatric Heart Surgery

Pediatric heart surgery involves procedures to treat heart defects in children and infants which may be congenital (present at birth) or occur after birth. Some congenital heart defects need surgical treatment immediately after birth, while some can be treated several months or years after. Pediatric heart surgery can be used to treat valve problems, repair heart injuries, correct holes between heart chambers, treat congenital heart defects, etc.


An electrophysiology (EP) is a test used to record details of the electrical activity of the heart. Electrophysiology uses computers and cardiac catheters to obtain electrical measurements from the heart. This test may be recommended for various reasons such as finding the source of abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) or determining the appropriate treatment for arrhythmia.

Endovascular Stenting

Endovascular stenting is a minimally invasive surgery which uses advanced instruments to treat various conditions such as blockage of blood vessels, aortic aneurysm, or hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). The endovascular stent is a small tube that is placed in the affected artery.  The aim of this surgical procedure is to restore the normal blood flow throughout the body.

Heart Valve Surgery

Heart valve surgery is a procedure which involves repairing or replacing heart valves. Heart valves control the one-way blood flow by closing and opening during heartbeats. If heart valves don’t open or close the way they should, the blood can’t flow throughout the body normally.  The valve repair method is often used to treat diseased mitral valves. In cases of severe valve damage, valve replacement may be recommended, which is most commonly used to replace mitral and aortic valves.

Hypertension Treatment

Hypertension treatment involves procedures to lower high blood pressure. High blood pressure can cause various conditions such as heart failure, strokes or kidney disease. Lifestyle changes and high blood pressure drugs such as diuretics can be used to treat hypertension. Sometimes a combination of different drugs have to be used.

Rheumatic heart disease

Rheumatic heart disease refers to range of heart defects that occur due to acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that may cause damage to the heart valves and affect their normal function. If the heart valves don’t open or close properly, the blood flow throughout the body gets interrupted. The appropriate treatment for rheumatic heart disease depends on type of heart damage, heart surgery may be necessary in severe cases.

Stent Implantation

Stent implantation involves placing a permanent small tube called stent inside a coronary artery, to treat blockages in the arteries. This procedure can be used in combination with angioplasty. Stent implantation can be used as an alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This procedure may be the appropriate treatment for artery blockages, depending on the blockage location and the artery size.

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implant

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implant (TAVI) is a minimally invasive surgery which uses a long tube called a catheter to implant the aortic valve. During this surgical procedure, the catheter is guided to the aortic valve in the heart to implant the new valve over the diseased valve. This procedure is effective for treating aortic stenosis, which is the narrowing of the aortic valve. This condition reduces the blood flow and is the most common valve defect.

Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are structural defects of the heart which are present at birth. There are various congenital heart defects that affect the normal blood flow through the heart. CHD can occur in different places such as interior heart walls, veins and arteries of the heart or heart valves. If treatment is necessary for congenital heart defects, procedures such as surgery and catheterization can fix most of these diseases.

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